Jumat, 15 Juni 2012

Ubud

Ubud is a town on the Indonesian island of Bali in Ubud District, located amongst rice paddies and steep ravines in the central foothills of the Gianyar regency. One of Bali's major arts and culture centres, it has developed a large tourism industry. Ubud has a population of about 30,000 people, but it is becoming difficult to distinguish the town itself from the villages that surround it
History
8th century legend tells of a Javanese priest, Rsi Markendya, who meditated at the confluence of two rivers (an auspicious site for Hindus) at the Ubud locality of Campuan. Here he founded the Gunung Lebah Temple on the valley floor, the site of which remains a pilgrim destination.[2] The town was originally important as a source of medicinal herbs and plants; Ubud gets its name from the Balinese word ubad (medicine).[2] In the late nineteenth century, Ubud became the seat of feudal lords who owed their allegiance to the king of Gianyar, at one time the most powerful of Bali's southern states. The lords were members of the satriya family of Sukawati, and were significant supporters of the village's increasingly renowned arts scene.[2] Tourism on the island developed after the arrival of Walter Spies, an ethnic German born in Russia who taught painting and music, and dabbled in dance. Spies and foreign painters Willem Hofker and Rudolf Bonnet entertained celebrities including Charlie Chaplin, Noël Coward, Barbara Hutton, H.G. Wells and Vicki Baum. They brought in some of the greatest artists from all over Bali to teach and train the Balinese in arts, helping Ubud become the cultural centre of Bali. A new burst of creative energy came in 1960s in the wake of Dutch painter Arie Smit (1916-), and development of the Young Artists Movement. There are many museums in Ubud, including the Museum Puri Lukisan, Museum Neka and the Agung Rai Museum of Art. The Bali tourist boom since the late 1960s has seen much development in the town; however, it remains a centre of artistic pursuit
Town orientation and tourism
The main street is Jalan Raya Ubud (Jalan Raya means main road), which runs east-west through the center of town. Two long roads, Jalan Monkey Forest and Jalan Hanoman, extend south from Jalan Raya Ubud. Puri Saren Agung is a large palace located at the intersection of Monkey Forest and Raya Ubud roads. The home of Tjokorda Gede Agung Sukawati (1910–1978), the last "king" of Ubud, it is now occupied by his descendants and dance performances are held in its courtyard. It was also one of Ubud's first hotels, dating back to the 1930s. The Ubud Monkey Forest is a sacred nature reserve located near the southern end of Jalan Monkey Forest. It houses a temple and approximately 340 Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys.[3] Ubud tourism focuses on culture, yoga and nature. In contrast to the main tourist area in southern Bali, the Ubud area has forests, rivers, cooler temperatures and less congestion although traffic has increased dramatically in the 21st century. A number of smaller "boutique"-style hotels are located in and around Ubud, which commonly offer spa treatments or treks up Ubud's mountains. The Moon of Pejeng, in nearby Pejeng, is the largest single-cast bronze kettle drum in the world, dating from circa 300BC. It is a popular destination for tourists interested in local culture, as is the 11th century Goa Gajah, or 'Elephant Cave', temple complex.

Kamis, 14 Juni 2012

Subak (irigasi)

Subak adalah organisasi kemasyarakatan yang khusus mengatur sistem pengairan sawah yang digunakan dalam cocok tanam padi di Bali, Indonesia. Subak ini biasanya memiliki pura yang dinamakan Pura Uluncarik, atau Pura Bedugul, yang khusus dibangun oleh para petani dan diperuntukkan bagi dewi kemakmuran dan kesuburan dewi Sri. Sistem pengairan ini diatur oleh seorang pemuka adat yang juga adalah seorang petani di Bali. Revolusi hijau telah menyebabkan perubahan pada sistem irigasi ini, dengan adanya varietas padi yang baru dan metode yang baru, para petani harus menanam padi sesering mungkin, dengan mengabaikan kebutuhan petani lainnya. Ini sangatlah berbeda dengan sistem Subak, di mana kebutuhan seluruh petani lebih diutamakan. Metode yang baru pada revolusi hijau menghasilkan pada awalnya hasil yang melimpah, tetapi kemudian diikuti dengan kendala-kendala seperti kekurangan air, hama dan polusi akibat pestisida baik di tanah maupun di air. (en) [2] Akhirnya ditemukan bahwa sistem pengairan sawah secara tradisional sangatlah efektif untuk menanggulangi kendala ini. Subak telah dipelajari oleh Clifford Geertz, sedangkan J. Stephen Lansing telah menarik perhatian umum tentang pentingnya sistem irigasi tradisional. Ia mempelajari pura-pura di Bali, terutama yang diperuntukkan bagi pertanian, yang biasa dilupakan oleh orang asing. Pada tahun 1987 Lansing bekerja sama dengan petani-petani Bali untuk mengembangkan model komputer sistem irigasi Subak. Dengan itu ia membuktikan keefektifan Subak serta pentingnya sistem ini. Pada tahun 2012 ini UNESCO, mengakui Subak (Bali Cultur Landscape), sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia,pada sidang pertama yang berlangsung di Saint Petersburg, Rusia.

Minggu, 03 Juni 2012

Pura Luhur Natar Sari Apuan

Stana Sang Hyang Siwa Pasupati, Tempat ''Paruman'' Barong Jika umat Hindu pedek tangkil ke Pura Kahyangan Jagat Luhur Natar Sari Apuan, Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan pada saat pujawali ageng, ada sesuatu yang unik dapat disaksikan. Pura yang di-empon lima desa adat -- Apuan, Jelantik, Tua, Bunutin dan Pinge -- itu dikenal sebagai kahyangan tempat nunas pasupati tapakan barong. Maka ketika berlangsung pujawali -- yang jatuh pada setiap Saniscara Kliwon Wuku Krulut Tumpek Krulut (setahun sekali) -- puluhan tapakan barong lunga ke pura tersebut. Barong yang menjadi sungsungan umat Hindu di lima kabupaten di Bali itu datang mengikuti prosesi katuran tengah malam, dan sebagian di antaranya masolah. Apalagi yang unik di kahyangan jagat itu?
Pura Natar Sari terletak di perkampungan -- Desa Apuan, Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan, sekitar 40 km utara Denpasar. Di pura ini terdapat pelawatan Ida Batara sejenis wayang wong yang memakai figur dan topeng wayang seperti Rahwana, Hanoman, Sugriwa, Anila dan dua punakawan Sangut dan Delem. Figur-figur pelawatan itu berjumlah sembilan. Dalam Purana Pura Luhur Natar Sari yang ditulis K. Sudarsana dan I Wayan Widarsana, S.Sos. disebutkan, tapakan berjumlah sembilan itu disebut Nawa Sangga atau Gunung Sia adalah perwujudan atau manifestasi Tuhan dalam bentuk Dewata Nawa Sangga yang disimbolkan dengan tokoh pewayangan.
Anoman, warnanya putih merupakan perlambang Dewa Iswara bersenjata bajra.
Anggada, warnanya dadu merupakan perwujudan Sang Hyang Maheswara.
Singajnana warnanya merah lambang Dewa Brahma.
Sugriwa warnanya jingga perlambang Dewa Rudra,
Sangut atau Ratu Ngurah Ketut warnanya kuning perlambang Dewa Mahadewa.
Anila warnanya hijau perlambang Dewa Sangkara.
Delem atau Ratu Ngurah Made warnanya kehitam-hitaman perwujudan Dewa Wisnu.
Sempati warnanya abu-abu perlambang Dewa Sambu dan
Rahwana atau Ratu Ngurah Sakti Ngawa Rat dengan warna mancawarna perwujudan Dewa Siwa.
Pewayangan Ida Batara tersebut merupakan manifestasi Sang Hyang Siwa Pasupati -- Tuhan Yang Mahakuasa. Di pura yang satu areal dengan Pura Puseh Desa Adat Apuan dan Jelantik ini terdapat sejumlah pelinggih. Pelinggih yang digunakan untuk memuja kebesaran Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa adalah Padmasana (Padma Lingga). Padmasana tinggi besar itu berdiri menghadap ke selatan, berdampingan dengan Padma Tiga dan Gedong Simpen. Di atas Padmasana ditempatkan sebuah batu hitam berisi tapak tangan (kara tala). Di utamaning mandala pura juga terdapat pelinggih Padma Tiga, pesimpangan Pura Dalem Peed, pesimpangan Pura Batu Bolong, Pesimpangan Pura Pucak Padang Dawa, Pura Ulun Danu, Pesimpangan Pura Jati dan sebagainya. Pelingih lainnya berupa Papelik, Gedong Simpen, Bale Pawedan, Bale Pemayasan, Meru Tumpang Tiga, Panglurah, dan sejumlah Bale Paruman. Pura Luhur Natar Sari memiliki keterkaitan dengan Pura Pucak Padang Dawa (juga di wilayah Kecamatan Baturiti). Pura Pucak Padang Dawa merupakan payogan Ida Batara yang distanakan di Pura Luhur Natar Sari. Atau, Pura Natar Sari merupakan penataran dari Pura Pucak Padang Dawa. Hal itu dikuatkan oleh uger-uger atau bukti-bukti di antaranya, jika tapakan Ida Batara Pura Natar Sari akan melancaran/ lunga/ ngunya ke jaba kuta, pertama-tama mesti makolem -- napak pertiwi/ mayasa di payogan Ida Batara di Pura Luhur Pucak Padang Dawa. Bukti lainnya, pemangku Pura Penataran Agung Pucak Padang Dawa dan pemangku Pura Dalem Purwa Pucak Padang Dawa berasal dari Apuan. Apit lawang pada kebanyakan pura di Bali berupa pelinggih, namun di Pura Pucak Padang Dawa berupa manusia hidup yang berasal dari Desa Apuan -- yang pratisentana-nya masih ada sampai sekarang. Bukti lainnya, pada saat pujawali ageng di Pura Luhur Natar Sari, wajib ngunggahang upakara (banten) di Pura Penataran Agung Pucak Padang Dawa. Selain memiliki keterkaitan dengan Pura Pucak Padang Dawa, Pura Luhur Natar Sari juga terkait dengan Pura-pura lain. Misalnya: Pura Pucak Peninjauan di Banjar Tampakkarang Apuan, Pura Bakungan di Banjar Uma Poh,Desa Bangli-Baturiti, Pura Pucak Sari Nadi-Baturiti, Pura Batu Lumbang di Desa Sandan-Baturiti, Pura Bukit Sari Baturiti, Pura Gunung Lebah di Banjar Tegeh-Angseri, Pura Paruman di Belayu-Marga, Pura Puser Tasik-Marga, Pura Batu Bolong Canggu-Badung, Pura Pucak Sangkur di Candi Kuning, dan Pura Dalem Peed-Klungkung. Pura Natar Sari terkait pula dengan Pura Pucak Anyar-- Pesimpangan Pura Pucak Pengungangan-Baturiti, Pura Taman Sari di Banjar Apit Yeh-Baturiti, Pura Jemeng di Banjar Pinge-Marga, Pura Purusadha (Pura Sada) Kapal-Badung, Pura Bukit Gede Poyan Luwus-Baturiti, Pura Panti Apuan, Pura Bencuing-Kukub-Perean, Pura Pucak Tinggan-Angseri Tabanan, Pura Penataran di Banjar Sandan-Baturiti, Pura Taman Ayun-Mengwi Badung, Pura Tri Kahyangan Desa Adat Apuan-Jelantik Baturiti Tabanan, Pura Bukit Sari Apuan Tabanan, Pura Puseh Desa Adat Tua-Marga Tabanan, Pura Pucak Rinjani-Baturiti Tabanan, Pura Jati, Batur, Kintamani-Bangli, Pura Campuan Ubud-Gianyar, Pura Kekeran Manik Gunung, Pura Katik Lantang Ubud Gianyar, dan Pura Puseh Gelagah-Marga Tabanan. Tahun 2004 di Pura ini sempat digelar Karya Agung Mamungkah lan Ngenteg Linggih mengambil tingkatan utamaning utama. Pujawali di Kahyangan Jagat yang bertepatan dengan rerahinan Tumpek Krulut ini, selalu ngerawuhin barong dalam jumlah yang banyak. Demikian pula pada pujawali Sabtu (8 maret 2008) lalu, 27 tapakan barong yang menjadi sungsungan ribuan umat Hindu di lima kabupaten -- Tabanan, Gianyar, Badung, Bangli dan Jembrana -- hadir mengikuti prosesi upacara yang dalam bahasa umat setempat disebut katuran. Dalam prosesi katuran, seluruh Tapakan Ratu Gede napak pertiwi. Sesuhunan di Pura Luhur Natar Sari -- Ida Batara Nawa Sanga dan semua Tapakan Ratu Gede -- diturunkan dari Bale Paruman, Bale Tiang Sanga dan Bale Pemayasan guna napak pertiwi. Para penyungsung mundut Ida Batara selama upacara katuran yang berlangsung sekitar dua jam. Para pamedek saling bergantian mundut Ida Batara, menambah eratnya rasa persaudaraan (penyamabrayan). Para pemangku dari berbagai desa pakraman bahu-membahu ngaturang ayah. Mereka mengantarkan umat ngaturang bakti ke hadapan Hyang Widi, guna memohon kerahayuan jagat. Setelah katuran selesai Ida Tapakan Ratu Gede kembali distanakan di Bale Paruman. Beberapa di antaranya lalu dipentaskan (masolah). Para pamedek sama-sama menyaksikan pergelaran tari wali tersebut. Prosesi ritual seperti itu sesungguhnya berdimensi religius sekaligus sosial-budaya. Artinya, masyarakat Hindu dari berbagai daerah selain terlibat dalam proses ritual dalam rangka memohon kerahayuan jagat, juga menyatu dalam kebersamaan, mempererat tali kekerabatan, berinteraksi membangun kesadaran beragama dan melestarikan budaya.

Sabtu, 02 Juni 2012

About Bali

Bali is an Indonesian island located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. It is one of the country's 33 provinces with the provincial capital at Denpasar towards the south of the island. The province covers a few small neighbouring islands as well as the isle of Bali. With a population recorded as 3,891,428 in the 2010 census,[3] the island is home to most of Indonesia's Hindu minority. In the 2000 census about 92.29% of Bali's population adhered to Balinese Hinduism while most of the remainder follow Islam. It is also the largest tourist destination in the country and is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking, and music. Bali, a tourist haven for decades, has seen a further surge in tourist numbers in recent years.
History
Bali was inhabited by around 2000 BC by Austronesian peoples who migrated originally from Taiwan through Maritime Southeast Asia.[4] Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are thus closely related to the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Oceania.[5] Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west.[6] In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Bhairawa, Siwa Shidanta, Waisnawa, Bodha, Brahma, Resi, Sora and Ganapatya. Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead.[7] Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Bali dwipa ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning "Walidwipa". It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice. Some religious and cultural traditions still in existence today can be traced back to this period. The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343. When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests, and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century. Tanah Lot, one of the major temples in BaliThe first European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1585 when a Portuguese ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung.[8] In 1597 the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali and, with the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602, the stage was set for colonial control two and a half centuries later when Dutch control expanded across the Indonesian archipelago throughout the second half of the nineteenth century (see Dutch East Indies). Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various distrustful Balinese realms against each other.[9] In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. The Dutch mounted large naval and ground assaults at the Sanur region in 1906 and were met by the thousands of members of the royal family and their followers who fought against the superior Dutch force in a suicidal puputan defensive assault rather than face the humiliation of surrender.[9] Despite Dutch demands for surrender, an estimated 1,000 Balinese marched to their death against the invaders.[10] In the Dutch intervention in Bali (1908), a similar massacre occurred in the face of a Dutch assault in Klungkung. Afterwards the Dutch governors were able to exercise administrative control over the island, but local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. Dutch rule over Bali came later and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku. In the 1930s, anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, and artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee created a western image of Bali as "an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature", and western tourism first developed on the island.[11] Balinese dancers show for tourists, in Ubud.Imperial Japan occupied Bali during World War II. Bali Island was not originally a target in their Netherlands East Indies Campaign, but as the airfields on Borneo were inoperative due to heavy rains the Imperial Japanese Army decided to occupy Bali, which did not suffer from comparable weather. The island had no regular Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) troops. There was only a Native Auxiliary Corps Prajoda (Korps Prajoda) consisting of about 600 native soldiers and several Dutch KNIL officers under command of KNIL Lieutenant Colonel W.P. Roodenburg. On 19 February 1942 the Japanese forces landed near the town of Senoer. The island was quickly captured.[12]
Tanah Lot, one of the major temples in Bali
During the Japanese occupation a Balinese military officer, Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed a Balinese 'freedom army'. The lack of institutional changes from the time of Dutch rule however, and the harshness of war requisitions made Japanese rule little better than the Dutch one.[13] Following Japan's Pacific surrender in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia, including Bali, immediately to reinstate their pre-war colonial administration. This was resisted by the Balinese rebels now using Japanese weapons. On 20 November 1946, the Battle of Marga was fought in Tabanan in central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, by then 29 years old, finally rallied his forces in east Bali at Marga Rana, where they made a suicide attack on the heavily armed Dutch. The Balinese battalion was entirely wiped out, breaking the last thread of Balinese military resistance. In 1946 the Dutch constituted Bali as one of the 13 administrative districts of the newly proclaimed State of East Indonesia, a rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was included in the "Republic of the United States of Indonesia" when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on 29 December 1949. The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed thousands, created economic havoc and forced many displaced Balinese to be transmigrated to other parts of Indonesia. Mirroring the widening of social divisions across Indonesia in the 1950s and early 1960s, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the traditional caste system, and those rejecting these traditional values. Politically, this was represented by opposing supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), with tensions and ill-feeling further increased by the PKI's land reform programs.[9] An attempted coup in Jakarta was put down by forces led by General Suharto. The army became the dominant power as it instigated a violent anti-communist purge, in which the army blamed the PKI for the coup. Most estimates suggest that at least 500,000 people were killed across Indonesia, with an estimated 80,000 killed in Bali, equivalent to 5% of the island's population.[14] With no Islamic forces involved as in Java and Sumatra, upper-caste PNI landlords led the extermination of PKI members.[15] As a result of the 1965/66 upheavals, Suharto was able to manoeuvre Sukarno out of the presidency, and his "New Order" government reestablished relations with western countries. The pre-War Bali as "paradise" was revived in a modern form, and the resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic increase in Balinese standards of living and significant foreign exchange earned for the country.[9] A bombing in 2002 by militant Islamists in the tourist area of Kuta killed 202 people, mostly foreigners. This attack, and another in 2005, severely affected tourism, bringing much economic hardship to the island, although tourist numbers have now returned to levels before the bombings.
Geography
The island of Bali lies 3.2 km (2 mi) east of Java, and is approximately 8 degrees south of the equator. Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait. East to west, the island is approximately 153 km (95 mi) wide and spans approximately 112 km (69 mi) north to south; its land area is 5,632 km². Bali's central mountains include several peaks over 3,000 metres in elevation. The highest is Mount Agung (3,031 m), known as the "mother mountain" which is an active volcano. Mountains range from centre to the eastern side, with Mount Agung the easternmost peak. Bali's volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and its tall mountain ranges provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector. South of the mountains is a broad, steadily descending area where most of Bali's large rice crop is grown. The northern side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice, vegetables and cattle. The longest river, Ayung River, flows approximately 75 km.
Subak irrigation system
The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. Bali has no major waterways, although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot, they are not yet used for significant tourism. Subak irrigation systemThe largest city is the provincial capital, Denpasar, near the southern coast. Its population is around 491,500 (2002). Bali's second-largest city is the old colonial capital, Singaraja, which is located on the north coast and is home to around 100,000 people. Other important cities include the beach resort, Kuta, which is practically part of Denpasar's urban area, and Ubud, situated at the north of Denpasar, is the island's cultural centre. Three small islands lie to the immediate south east and all are administratively part of the Klungkung regency of Bali: Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan. These islands are separated from Bali by the Badung Strait. To the east, the Lombok Strait separates Bali from Lombok and marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia. The transition is known as the Wallace Line, named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who first proposed a transition zone between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated.
Ecology
Bali lies just to the west of the Wallace Line, and thus has a fauna which is Asian in character, with very little Australasian influence, and has more in common with Java than with Lombok. An exception is the Yellow-crested Cockatoo, a member of a primarily Australasian family. There are around 280 species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali Starling, which is endemic. Others Include Barn Swallow, Black-naped Oriole, Black Racket-tailed Treepie, Crested Serpent-eagle, Crested Treeswift, Dollarbird, Java Sparrow, Lesser Adjutant, Long-tailed Shrike, Milky Stork, Pacific Swallow, Red-rumped Swallow, Sacred Kingfisher, Sea Eagle, Woodswallow, Savanna Nightjar, Stork-billed Kingfisher, Yellow-vented Bulbul, White Heron, Great Egret. Until the early 20th century, Bali was home to several large mammals: the wild Banteng, leopard and the endemic Bali Tiger. The Banteng still occurs in its domestic form, while leopards are found only in neighboring Java, and the Bali Tiger is extinct. The last definite record of a Tiger on Bali dates from 1937, when one was shot, though the subspecies may have survived until the 1940s or 1950s.[16] The relatively small size of the island, conflict with humans, poaching and habitat reduction drove the Tiger to extinction. This was the smallest and rarest of all Tiger subspecies and was never caught on film or displayed in zoos, while few skins or bones remain in museums around the world. Today, the largest mammals are the Javan Rusa deer and the Wild Boar. A second, smaller species of deer, the Indian Muntjac, also occurs.
Monkey Forest, Ubud
Monkey Forest, UbudSquirrels are quite commonly encountered, less often is the Asian Palm Civet, which is also kept in coffee farms to produce Kopi Luwak. Bats are well represented, perhaps the most famous place to encounter them remaining the Goa Lawah (Temple of the Bats) where they are worshipped by the locals and also constitute a tourist attraction. They also occur in other cave temples, for instance at Gangga Beach. Two species of monkey occur. The Crab-eating Macaque, known locally as “kera”, is quite common around human settlements and temples, where it becomes accustomed to being fed by humans, particularly in any of the three “monkey forest” temples, such as the popular one in the Ubud area. They are also quite often kept as pets by locals. The second monkey, endemic to Java and some surrounding islands, such as Bali which is far rarer and more elusive is the Javan Langur, locally known as "lutung". They occur in few places apart from the Bali Barat National Park. What is interesting about this species is that the young are born an orange colour, though by their first year they would have already changed to a more blackish colouration. In Java however, there is more of a tendency for this species to retain its juvenile orange colour into adulthood, and so you can see a mixture of black and orange monkeys together as a family. Other rarer mammals include the Leopard Cat, Sunda Pangolin and Black Giant Squirrel. Snakes include the King Cobra and Reticulated Python. The Water Monitor can grow to an impressive size and move surprisingly quickly. The rich coral reefs around the coast, particularly around popular diving spots such as Tulamben, Amed, Menjangan or neighboring Nusa Penida, host a wide range of marine life, for instance Hawksbill Turtle, Giant Sunfish, Giant Manta Ray, Giant Moray Eel, Bumphead Parrotfish, Hammerhead Shark, Reef Shark, barracuda, and sea snakes. Dolphins are commonly encountered on the north coast near Singaraja and Lovina. Many plants have been introduced by humans within the last centuries, particularly since the 20th century, making it sometimes hard to distinguish what plants are really native. Among the larger trees the most common are: Banyan trees, Jackfruit, coconuts, bamboo species, acacia trees and also endless rows of coconuts and banana species. Numerous flowers can be seen: hibiscus, frangipani, bougainvillea, poinsettia, oleander, jasmine, water lily, lotus, roses, begonias, orchids and hydrangeas exist. On higher grounds that receive more moisture, for instance around Kintamani, certain species of fern trees, mushrooms and even pine trees thrive well. Rice comes in many varieties. Other plants with agricultural value include: salak, mangosteen, corn, Kintamani orange, coffee and water spinach. A team of scientists has conducted survey from 29 April 2011 to 11 May 2011 at 33 sea site of Bali. They have discovered 952 species of reef fish which 8 of them were new discoveries at Pemuteran, Gilimanuk, Nusa Dua, Tulamben and Candidasa and 393 coral species, including two new ones at Padangbai and between Padangbai and Amed.[17] The average coverage level of healthy coral was 36 percent (better than in Raja Ampat and Halmahera by 29 percent or in Fakfak and Kaimana by 25 percent) with the highest coverage was found in Gili Selang and Gili Mimpang in Candidasa, Karangasem regency.[18]
Environment
Some of the worst erosion has occurred in Lebih Beach, where up to 7 meters of land is lost every year. Decades ago, this beach was used for holy pilgrimages with more than 10,000 people, but they have now moved to Masceti Beach.[19] From ranked third in previous review, in 2010 Bali got score 99.65 of Indonesia's environmental quality index and the highest of all the 33 provinces. The score measured 3 water quality parameters: the level of total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).[20] Due to over-exploitation by the tourist industry which converse massive land, 200 out of 400 rivers on the island have dried up and based on research, the southern part of Bali would face a water shortage up to 2,500 liters of clean water per second by 2015.[21] To ease the shortage, the central government plans to build a water catchment and processing facility at Petanu River in Gianyar. The 300 liters capacity of water per second will be channeled to Denpasar, Badung and Gianyar in 2013.[22]
Economy
Three decades ago, the Balinese economy was largely agriculture-based in terms of both output and employment. Tourism is now the largest single industry; and as a result, Bali is one of Indonesia’s wealthiest regions. About 80% of Bali's economy depends on tourism.[23] By end of June 2011, non-performing loan of all banks in Bali were 2.23 percent average, relatively quite low compare to about 5 percent average of Indonesian banking industry non-performing loan.[24] The economy, however, suffered significantly as a result of the terrorist bombings 2002 and 2005. The tourism industry is slowly recovering once again.
Agriculture
Although tourism produces the GDP's largest output, agriculture is still the island’s biggest employer;[25][citation needed] most notably rice cultivation. Crops grown in smaller amounts include fruit, vegetables, Coffea arabica and other cash and subsistence crops.[citation needed] Fishing also provides a significant number of jobs. Bali is also famous for its artisans who produce a vast array of handicrafts, including batik and ikat cloth and clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings, painted art and silverware. Notably, individual villages typically adopt a single product, such as wind chimes or wooden furniture.
Tegalalang rice terrace in Ubud
The Arabica coffee production region is the highland region of Kintamani near Mount Batur. Generally, Balinese coffee is processed using the wet method. This results in a sweet, soft coffee with good consistency. Typical flavors include lemon and other citrus notes.[26] Many coffee farmers in Kintamani are members of a traditional farming system called Subak Abian, which is based on the Hindu philosophy of "Tri Hita Karana”. According to this philosophy, the three causes of happiness are good relations with God, other people and the environment. The Subak Abian system is ideally suited to the production of fair trade and organic coffee production. Arabica coffee from Kintamani is the first product in Indonesia to request a
Tourism
The tourism industry is primarily focused in the south, while significant in the other parts of the island as well. The main tourist locations are the town of Kuta (with its beach), and its outer suburbs of Legian and Seminyak (which were once independent townships), the east coast town of Sanur (once the only tourist hub), in the center of the island Ubud, to the south of the Ngurah Rai International Airport, Jimbaran, and the newer development of Nusa Dua and Pecatu. The American government lifted its travel warnings in 2008. The Australian government last issued an advice on Friday, 04 May 2012. The overall level of the advice was lowered to 'Exercise a high degree of caution'.
Pura Taman Ayun, another temple which is a popular tourist destination
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot in Bali
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot in BaliAn offshoot of tourism is the growing real estate industry. Bali real estate has been rapidly developing in the main tourist areas of Kuta, Legian, Seminyak and Oberoi. Most recently, high-end 5 star projects are under development on the Bukit peninsula, on the south side of the island. Million dollar villas are being developed along the cliff sides of south Bali, commanding panoramic ocean views. Foreign and domestic (many Jakarta individuals and companies are fairly active) investment into other areas of the island also continues to grow. Land prices, despite the worldwide economic crisis, have remained stable. In the last half of 2008, Indonesia's currency had dropped approximately 30% against the US dollar, providing many overseas visitors value for their currencies. Visitor arrivals for 2009 were forecast to drop 8% (which would be higher than 2007 levels), due to the worldwide economic crisis which has also affected the global tourist industry, but not due to any travel warnings. Bali's tourism economy survived the terrorist bombings of 2002 and 2005, and the tourism industry has in fact slowly recovered and surpassed its pre-terrorist bombing levels; the longterm trend has been a steady increase of visitor arrivals. At 2010, Bali received 2.57 million foreign tourists. It is surpassed the target of 2.0–2.3 million tourists. The average occupancy of starred hotels achieved 65 percent (last year 60.8 percent), so still capable for accommodates tourists for next some years without any addition of new rooms/hotels,[28] although at the peak season some of them are fully booked. Bali received the Best Island award from Travel and Leisure in 2010. The award was presented in the show "World's Best Awards 2010" in New York, on 21 July. Hotel Four Seasons Resort Bali at Jimbaran also received an award in the category of "World Best Hotel Spas in Asia 2010". The award was based on a survey of travel magazine Travel and Leisure readers between 15 December 2009 through 31 March 2010, and was judged on several criteria. Thermes Marins Bali, Ayana Resort and Spa, (formerly The Ritz-Carlton) got score 95.6 scored out of a maximum 100 of satisfaction index with spa facilities and services as No. 1 Spa in the world by Conde Naste's Traveller Magazine for 2010 by their readers poll.[29] The island of Bali won because of its attractive surroundings (both mountain and coastal areas), diverse tourist attractions, excellent international and local restaurants, and the friendliness of the local people. According to BBC Travel released in 2011, Bali is one of the World's Best Islands, rank in second after Greece.[30] On August 2010, the film version of Eat, Pray, Love (EPL), which starred Julia Roberts, was released in theaters. The movie was based on Elizabeth Gilbert's best-selling memoir of the same name. It took place at Ubud and Padang-Padang Beach at Bali. The 2006 book, which spent 57 weeks at the No. 1 spot on the New York Times paperback nonfiction best-seller list, has already fueled a boom in EPL tourism in Ubud, the hill town and cultural and tourist center that was the focus of Gilbert's quest for balance through traditional spirituality and healing that leads to love.[31] Newly launched packages by luxury resorts and spas like Ubud Hanging Gardens and the cliff-top Ayana promise to recreate Gilbert's four transformative months on Bali in a few passing days with yoga classes, drawn-out beach dinners, massage therapy. Other tours built around the book focus on curative group gatherings and self-discovery of the kind Gilbert had.[32] EPL helped boost Bali’s tourist numbers, together with the stable security situation on the island. Bali had 2.5 million visitors in 2010, exceeding their target of 2.3 million. That figure was also an improvement from 2009’s 2.2 million and 2008’s 1.96 million visitors.[33] The Tourism Office admitted that they had done nothing to maximize the opportunity to promote Bali and surrender to the filmmakers to promote.[34] Since 2011, China has displaced Japan as the second-largest supplier of tourists to Bali, while Australia still tops the list. China tourists increased by 17 percent from last year due to the impact of ACFTA and new direct flights to Bali.[35] In January 2012, Chinese tourists year on year (yoy) increased by 222.18 percent compared to January 2011, while Japanese tourists declined by 23.54 percent yoy
Transportation
The Ngurah Rai International Airport is located near Jimbaran, on the isthmus at the southernmost part of the island. Lt.Col. Wisnu Airfield is found in north-west Bali. A coastal road surrounds the island, and three major two-lane arteries cross the central mountains at passes reaching to 1,750m in height (at Penelokan). The Ngurah Rai Bypass is a four-lane expressway that partly encircles Denpasar and enables cars to travel quickly in the heavily populated south. Bali has no railway lines yet.
A major form of transport in Bali is the Moped
December 2010: Government of Indonesia has invited investors to build Tanah Ampo Cruise Terminal at Karangasem, Bali amounted $30 million.[37] In 17 July 2011 the first cruise ship (Sun Princess) will anchor about 400 meters away from the wharf of Tanah Ampo harbor. The current pier is only 154 meters and will be a 300 to 350 meters to accommodate international cruise ships. The harbor would be safer than Benoa and has a scenic backdrop of a panoramic view of mountainous area with green rice fields.[38] In December 2011, the auction process will setlle and predicted Tanah Ampo to become the main hub for cruise ships in Indonesia in 2013.[39] A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by 2 ministers, Bali's Governor and Indonesian Train Company to build 565 kilometers railway along the coast around the island. It will be operated from 2015 onwards.[40] On 16 March 2011 (Tanjung) Benoa port has received a "Best Port Welcome 2010" award from London's "Dream World Cruise Destination" magazine.[41] Government plans to expand the role of Benoa port as export-import port to boost Bali's trade and industry sector.[42] On May 2011, an integrated Areal Traffic Control System (ATCS) was implemented to reduce traffic jams at four crossing points: Ngurah Rai statue, Dewa Ruci Kuta crossing, Jimbaran crossing and Sanur crossing. ATCS is an integrated system connecting all traffic lights, CCTVs and other traffic signals with a monitoring office at the police headquarters. It has successfully been implemented in other ASEAN countries and will be implemented at other crossings in Bali.[43][44] On 21 December 2011 officially kicked off the construction of the Nusa Dua-Benoa-Ngurah Rai International Airport toll road which provide also with a special lane for motorcycle has been done by seven state-owned enterprises led by PT Jasa Marga with 60 percent of shares was named PT Jasa Marga Bali Tol will construct the 9.91 kilometers toll road. The construction is estimated to cost Rp.2.49 trillion ($273.9 million) and is expected to be finished by April 2013 before Apec Summit and the Bali Summer Summit 2013. The project will through 2 kilometers mangrove forest and through 2.3 kilometer beach, both in 5.4 hectares area. Elevated toll road will be built over the mangrove forest on 18,000 concrete pillars which will occupy 2 hectares of mangroves forest, but will compensate by new plant of 300,000 mangrove tress along the road. On 21 December 2011 the Dewa Ruci 450 meters underpass has also been kicked off on the busy Dewa Ruci junction near Bali Kuta Galeria with estimated cost Rp136 billion ($14.9 million) from the state budget.[45][46][47] To solve chronic traffic problems, the province will build a toll road connecting Serangan with Tohpati, a toll road connecting Kuta, Denpasar and Tohpati and a flyover connecting Kuta and Ngurah Rai Airport
Religion
Unlike most of Muslim-majority Indonesia, about 93.18% of Bali's population adheres to Balinese Hinduism Hindu Dharma, formed as a combination of existing local beliefs and Hindu influences from mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia. Minority religions include Islam (4.79%), Christianity (1.38%), and Buddhism (0.64%). These figures do not include immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. When Islam surpassed Hinduism in Java (16th century), Bali became a refuge for many Hindus. Balinese Hinduism is an amalgam in which gods and demigods are worshipped together with Buddhist heroes, the spirits of ancestors, indigenous agricultural deities and sacred places. Religion as it is practiced in Bali is a composite belief system that embraces not only theology, philosophy, and mythology, but ancestor worship, animism and magic. It pervades nearly every aspect of traditional life. Caste is observed, though less strictly than in India. With an estimated 20,000 puras (temples) and shrines, Bali is known as the "Island of a Thousand Puras", or "Island of the Gods".[50]
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
A religious procession
Balinese Hinduism has roots in Indian Hinduism and in Buddhism, and adopted the animistic traditions of the indigenous people. This influence strengthened the belief that the gods and goddesses are present in all things. Every element of nature, therefore, possesses its own power, which reflects the power of the gods. A rock, tree, dagger, or woven cloth is a potential home for spirits whose energy can be directed for good or evil. Balinese Hinduism is deeply interwoven with art and ritual. Ritualizing states of self-control are a notable feature of religious expression among the people, who for this reason have become famous for their graceful and decorous behavior.[51] Apart from the majority of Balinese Hindus, there also exist Chinese immigrants whose traditions have melded with that of the locals. As a result, these Sino-Balinese not only embrace their original religion, which is a mixture of Buddhism, Christianity, Taoism and Confucianism, but also find a way to harmonize it with the local traditions. Hence, it is not uncommon to find local Sino-Balinese during the local temple's odalan. Moreover, Balinese Hindu priests are invited to perform rites alongside a Chinese priest in the event of the death of a Sino-Balinese.[52] Nevertheless, the Sino-Balinese claim to embrace Buddhism for administrative purposes, such as their Identity Cards
Language
Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages in Bali, and the vast majority of Balinese people are bilingual or trilingual. The word "bahasa" literally means language in Indonesian, and the most common spoken language around the touristic areas in Bali are Bahasa Indonesia, as many people in the tourist sector are not solely Balinese, but migrant workers from Java, Lombok, Sumatra, and other parts of Indonesia. There are several indigenous Balinese languages, but most Balinese can also use the most widely spoken option: modern common Balinese. The usage of different Balinese languages was traditionally determined by the Balinese caste system and by clan membership, but this tradition is diminishing. Kawi and Sanskrit are also commonly used by some Hindu priests in Bali, for Hinduism literature was mostly written in Sanskrit. English is a common third language (and the primary foreign language) of many Balinese, owing to the requirements of the tourism industry. Other foreign languages, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, French or German are often used in multilingual signs for foreign tourists.
Culture
Bali is renowned for its diverse and sophisticated art forms, such as painting, sculpture, woodcarving, handcrafts, and performing arts. Balinese percussion orchestra music, known as gamelan, is highly developed and varied. Balinese performing arts often portray stories from Hindu epics such as the Ramayana but with heavy Balinese influence. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, gong keybar, and kecak (the monkey dance). Bali boasts one of the most diverse and innovative performing arts cultures in the world, with paid performances at thousands of temple festivals, private ceremonies, or public shows.[54]
Balinese dancers wearing elaborate headgear, photographed in 1929. Digitally restored.
Stone carvings in Ubud.
ogoh-ogoh
The Hindu New Year, Nyepi, is celebrated in the spring by a day of silence. On this day everyone stays at home and tourists are encouraged to remain in their hotels. On the day before New Year, large and colourful sculptures of ogoh-ogoh monsters are paraded and finally burned in the evening to drive away evil spirits. Other festivals throughout the year are specified by the Balinese pawukon calendrical system. Balinese dancers wearing elaborate headgear, photographed in 1929. Digitally restored.Celebrations are held for many occasions such as a tooth-filing (coming-of-age ritual), cremation or odalan (temple festival). One of the most important concepts that Balinese ceremonies have in common is that of désa kala patra, which refers to how ritual performances must be appropriate in both the specific and general social context.[55] Many of the ceremonial art forms such as wayang kulit and topeng are highly improvisatory, providing flexibility for the performer to adapt the performance to the current situation.[56] Many celebrations call for a loud, boisterous atmosphere with lots of activity and the resulting aesthetic, ramé, is distinctively Balinese. Often two or more gamelan ensembles will be performing well within earshot, and sometimes compete with each other in order to be heard. Likewise, the audience members talk amongst themselves, get up and walk around, or even cheer on the performance, which adds to the many layers of activity and the liveliness typical of ramé.[57] Stone carvings in Ubud.Kaja and kelod are the Balinese equivalents of North and South, which refer to ones orientation between the island’s largest mountain Gunung Agung (kaja), and the sea (kelod). In addition to spatial orientation, kaja and kelod have the connotation of good and evil; gods and ancestors are believed to live on the mountain whereas demons live in the sea. Buildings such as temples and residential homes are spatially oriented by having the most sacred spaces closest to the mountain and the unclean places nearest to the sea.[58] Most temples have an inner courtyard and an outer courtyard which are arranged with the inner courtyard furthest kaja. These spaces serve as performance venues since most Balinese rituals are accompanied by any combination of music, dance and drama. The performances that take place in the inner courtyard are classified as wali, the most sacred rituals which are offerings exclusively for the gods, while the outer courtyard is where bebali ceremonies are held, which are intended for gods and people. Lastly, performances meant solely for the entertainment of humans take place outside the walls of the temple and are called bali-balihan. This three-tiered system of classification was standardized in 1971 by a committee of Balinese officials and artists in order to better protect the sanctity of the oldest and most sacred Balinese rituals from being performed for a paying audience.[59] Tourism, Bali’s chief industry, has provided the island with a foreign audience that is eager to pay for entertainment, thus creating new performance opportunities and more demand for performers. The impact of tourism is controversial since before it became integrated into the economy, the Balinese performing arts did not exist as a capitalist venture, and were not performed for entertainment outside of their respective ritual context. Since the 1930s sacred rituals such as the barong dance have been performed both in their original contexts, as well as exclusively for paying tourists. This has led to new versions of many of these performances which have developed according to the preferences of foreign audiences; some villages have a barong mask specifically for non-ritual performances as well as an older mask which is only used for sacred performances.[60] Balinese society continues to revolve around each family's ancestral village, to which the cycle of life and religion is closely tied.[61] Coercive aspects of traditional society, such as customary law sanctions imposed by traditional authorities such as village councils (including "kasepekang", or shunning) have risen in importance as a consequence of the democratization and decentralization of Indonesia since 1998.[61]

SEJARAH KAHYANGAN DI BUMI PAYANGAN KEKUATAN TUHAN YANG UTAMA

Payangan adalah salah satu Kecamatan di kabupaten Gianyar yang berada diketinggian 600 meter diatas permukaan laut dan berbatasan langsung dengan wilayah bukit Kintamani Bangli sehingga daerah ini terkenal sangat subur terutama dalam pertanian maupun perkebunan sayur-mayur,kopi,coklat dll. Pada jaman dahulu nama Payangan adalah Parahyangan yang berarti Kahyangan dikarenakan jauh sebelum kedatangan Rsi Markandeya ke Nusa Dawa (Bali) tempat ini adalah pancer Hyang suci berstana dengan kata lain Bumi Parahyangan adalah sebagai stana tempat melinggihnya para Hyang Bhatara-Bhatari di Bali sehingga pada jaman dahulu bernama Parahyangan yang secara singkat pada saat ini pengucapannya menjadi Payangan. Salah satu dari Kahyangan Tua/Pura Kuno di wilayah Payangan adalah Pura Dalem Agung Payangan mengenai asal-usul berdirinya pura keramat dan tertua ini sebagai Parahyangan ida Bhatari Dalem Lingsir karena yang melinggih di Pura Dalem Agung Payangan adalah Bhatari Durga sebagai sakti dari Dewa Siwa dan mengapa dikatakan lingsir karena Pura Dalem ini yang pertama kali ada di Payangan dan satu-satunya Pura Dalem tertua di Bali sehingga sering disebut Dalem Tua dan juga di dalam Markandeya Purana Tatwa yang tersimpan baik di Pura Penataran Agung Besakih mencatat bahwa Sejarah keberadaan Pura Dalem Agung Payangan yang dahulu bernama Kahyangan Dalem Jagat Purwa ini sangat erat kaitannya dengan perjalanan suci Rsi Markandeya di Bali pada abad ke-8 dan beliau adalah seorang Mahayogi penganut aliran Siwa yang berasal dari India Selatan.
Kori Agung Pura Dalem Agung Payangan
Pura Dalem Agung Payangan dalam sejarahnya yang dahulu bernama Kahyangan Dalem jagat Purwa dikarenakan Pura tersebut berlokasi di timur Kahyangan Murwa Bumi sebagai Pusat Bumi (Murwaning Bumi) yang secara Geografis memang letak wilayah Payangan ini tepat berada di tengah-tengah Pulau Bali, dan terbukti di dalam Markandeya Purana Tatwa yang tersimpan baik di Pura Penataran Agung Besakih menyebutkan bahwa setelah Rsi Markandeya membangun Kahyangan Dalem Amurwa Bumi (Murwa Bumi) ring Parahyangan dan setelah itu juga kembali Rsi Markandeya membangun Kahyangan Dalem Jagat Purwa ring Parahyangan sehingga kedua Pura ini adalah sebagai dasar dari kekuatan spiritual di Pulau Bali dan selama berabad-abad pada jaman Rsi Markandeya tepatnya pada abad ke-8 hingga pada jaman Kerajaan Payangan di abad ke-16. Kedua pura ini hanya Pura Dalem Jagat Purwa saja yang berubah nama dan statusnya menjadi Pura Dalem Agung Payangan yang berarti Pura Dalem yang Utama dan terbesar serta sebagai pusat/induk dari seluruh Pura Dalem di desa-desa wilayah kecamatan Payangan.
Arca Pralingga Pura Dalem Agung Payangan
Pura Dalem Agung ini terdapat berbagai peninggalan berupa arca pralingga dewa dengan berbagai bentuk dan ukuran yang terbuat dari batu padas sehingga terlihat jelas kesederhanaan dalam pembuatan arca patung tersebut pada masa lampau seperti arca bedogol raksasa-raksasi,arca dewa menunggang harimau,arca dewa siwa menunggang Nandini,arca singa,arca pendeta/Rsi,arca bedogol durga Bairawi dll. belum lagi menurut Jro Mangku Gede ada beberapa arca-arca patung yang rusak karena sudah terlalu tua sehingga digunakan sebagai dasar utama bangunan di masing-masing pelinggih Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini.
Dewa Siwa & Dewi Uma / Durga
Keunikan dari Pura Dalem Agung Payangan adalah terdapatnya Gedong Pemijilan Agung yang artinya Pemijilan adalah (mijil) suatu permulaan atau awal sehingga Pura Dalem Agung Payangan adalah Pura Dalem yang paling awal ada di Bali dan juga sebagai Stana dari Hyang Bhatara Siwa Guru (Dewa Siwa) sehingga Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini memiliki symbol pemujaan utama Purusa dan Pradana. terlebih lagi adanya Pelinggih Bujangga yang sejak dahulu apabila ada odalan gede/ageng selain Jro Mangku sudah ada yang memuput di alam luhur (Bhatara) beliau adalah ida Bujangga Siwa Sakti dan tersedia peralatan-peralatan upacara lengkap seperti halnya ida Pandita maupun ida Pedanda di pelinggih Bujangga tersebut. Keunikan lainnya yaitu adanya Bale Pejagalan/Bale timbang yang terletak di Madya Mandala, berfungsi secara niskala Bale Pejagalan ini untuk menimbang baik buruknya perbuatan roh manusia yang telah mati pada saat manusia itu hidup di dunia (marcapada) atau dapat disebut juga sebagai Akhiratnya Dunia. selain itu juga di Utama Mandala terdapat Pelinggih Banaspati yang secara mitologi Hindu Banaspati adalah Raja Jin,Setan,Memedi,Gandarwa,Roh halus,Penguasa Hutan Angker dll. fungsi beliau di Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini sebagai pepatih dari ida Bhatari Dalem lingsir.
Tegik Pemuwunan Agung (Pura Dalem Agung Payangan)
Tegik Pemuwunan Agung berada tepat di depan Pura Mrajapati yang berdampingan dengan Pura Dalem Agung Payangan, fungsi utama dari Tegik pemuwunan Agung tersebut selain sebagai tempat Pasupati/ngerehin Ratu Rangda dan Ratu tapakan Barong juga pada jaman Kerajaan besar di Bali dan pada abad ke-16 Tegik Pemuwunan Agung digunakan sebagai tempat pemuwunan utama jenazah Raja Payangan sehingga status Tegik Pemuwunan ini lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Pemuwunan biasa pada umumnya di Kahyangan tiga Pura Dalem lain yang ada di Bali karena Tegik pemuwunan Agung di perlambangkan Gunung sebagai stana ritual Dewa siwa dalam wujud Hyang Siwa Bhairawa atau Bergelar Rudra Murti manifestasi Ida Sanghyang Widhi Wasa (Tuhan Yang Maha Esa) dalam melebur segala unsur ciptaannya. Dari bentuk fisik Tegik Pemuwunan Agung ini sebagai yang tertinggi dan terbesar di Payangan yang mencapai tinggi Tegik lebih dari tiga meter dan menurut keyakinan turun-temurun masyarakat desa adat setempat awal Pembangunan Tegik Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini di jaman dahulu adalah sebagai tempat pemujaan utama Sekte Bhairawa di Bali yang menggunakan Caru lima kepala manusia/tenggek sebagai Dasarnya dan Darah dari kepala manusia sebagai perekat dari bangunan Tegik pemuwunan Agung tersebut. sehingga Tegik tersebut menjadi kokoh,beraura Magis dan bertaksu sehingga apapun baik itu Barong,tapel,keris pejenengan,benda-benda bertuah lainnya kalau di Pasupati tepat berada di atas tegik pemuwunan Agung tersebut akan terlihat perbedaannya dan jauh memiliki kekuatan Magis dari sebelumnya.
Utama Mandala / Jeroan Pura Dalem Agung Payangan
Pura Dalem Agung Payangan dibagi menjadi Tri Mandala yaitu Nista Mandala,Madya Mandala dan Utama Mandala akan tetapi Pura Dalem ini memiliki perbedaan tersendiri dan mungkin hanya ada satu-satunya di Bali yaitu konsep Palemahan Tri Mandala Pura Dalem yang benar-benar turun ke Dalam dan sebenarnya nama dari Dalem bukan berarti Dalem Raja melainkan sulit di dekati atau jauh ke Dalam (Siwa-Durga) sehingga ada istilah Tuhan tidak akan mudah di dekati terkecuali manusia tersebut sudah dalam proses pencerahan atau menjauhi sifat duniawi menuju kesucian dan keiklasan lahir bathin atau dapat kembali kepada Sang Pencipta melalui kematian. begitu juga dengan ajaran Durga kiwa (kiri) dan Siwa tengen (kanan) dan inilah yang di sebut Rwa Bhineda siklus kehidupan dan baik buruknya Dunia semua ada di Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini. Pernah dahulu di jaman Kerajaan Payangan masyarakat dan Puri Payangan berkeinginan merubah system Tri Mandala Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini agar sama dengan Pura Dalem lainnya yang ada di Bali yaitu Madya Mandala dan Utama Mandala bertahap ke Atas atau pun sejajar tetapi entah kenapa terjadi keanehan yaitu tanah yang sudah diratakan/diurug sebagai dasar dari Utama Mandala tidak kunjung penuh maupun tinggi sebagai mana yang diharapkan dan anehnya lagi secara tiba-tiba Taru Beringin yang berusia ratusan tahun tumbang menimpa Paruman Agung sebagai tanda Ida Bhatari tidak menyetujui kegiatan ini dan ternyata benar menurut Jro Mangku lingsir sebagai pengempon Pura Dalem Agung Payangan mengatakan bahwa Ida Bhatari yang melinggih di Dalem Agung ini tidak berkenan kalau Parahyangannya di Rusak atau pun dirubah dan Ida Bhatari berkeinginan biarkan Parahyangan ini seperti apa adanya sama halnya pada saat Parahyangan/Pura ini ada di Bumi Payangan dan apabila kegiatan ini masih dilanjutkan akan ada resiko sangat besar yaitu berupa bencana baik itu Sekala maupun Niskala dengan adanya hal tersebut Masyarakat dan Puri Payangan tidak berani mengambil resiko tersebut dikarenakan takut akan kemarahan (Kroda) ida Bhatari Dalem yang tidak lain adalah Dewi Durga beliaulah yang mengendalikan Urip/hidup Matinya Manusia di Bumi (Pralina) dengan kekuatan Sakti Hyang Rudra Murti nama lain dari Dewa Siwa dalam melebur alam semesta beserta isinya dan semenjak saat itu Utama Mandala Pura Dalem Agung Payangan tetap seperti aslinya. Ajaran Sadcakra yaitu ajaran tentang enam kekuatan dalam tubuh dan ajaran mengenai Kundalini yang hidup dalam tubuh manusia yang bersumber dari sekte Bhairawa (Siwa-Durga). Menurut ajaran sekte ini dan rontal-rontal yang termuat dalam tantrayana seperti lontar Gong Besi yang menyebutkan lingkaran Muladara dalam bagian perut pusar manusia yang berada di bawah adalah berbentuk Lingga Siwa dan yang mengelilinginya dengan tiga setengah adalah Dewi Durga itu sendiri dan dengan latihan-latihan khusus Cakra Durga ini dapat dibangunkan dari sikap tidurnya yang melingkar dan naik sampai ke lingkaran-lingkaran halus badan yang paling tinggi. Istilah ajaran Tantrayana berasal dari akar kata “Tan” yang artinya memaparkan kesaktian atau kekuatan dari pada Dewa itu. Di India penganut Tantrisme identik dengan Dewa Siwa dan banyak terdapat di India Selatan dan india tengah dibandingkan dengan India Utara. Kitab-kitab yang memuat ajaran Tantrayana banyak sekali dan di Indonesia dari Tantrisme munculah suatu faham “Bhairawa” atau “Bhairawi” yang artinya hebat/Dahsyat.
Mrajapati Pura Dalem Agung Payangan
Dalam upacara memuja Bhairawa dilakukan oleh para penganut aliran Tantrayana, dan aliran ini biasanya diterapkan oleh para Yogi/Rsi yaitu dengan cara agar dapat bersatu dengan Dewa Siwa pada saat mereka masih hidup karena pada umumnya mereka bersatu atau bertemu dengan para dewa pada saat setelah mati sehingga mereka melakukan upacara jalan pintas yang disebut dengan ritual Pancamakarapuja di kuburan maupun di Tempat pembakaran mayat dengan cara seseorang melakukan sembah bhakti kepada Dewa Siwa. Mitologi India menyebutkan bahwa Gunung Himalaya adalah tempat Kahyangan Dewa Siwa tetapi beliau lebih senang bepergian ke Bumi terutama di tempat-tempat angker seperti kuburan maupun tempat pembakaran mayat karena beliau selalu melakukan ritual misterius sehingga beliau juga bergelar sebagai Rudra Murti (Pelebur tertinggi) karena mengetahui hal tersebut manusia melakukan puja bhakti itu di kuburan maupun pembakaran mayat agar mendapatkan anugerah kesaktian maupun Sidhi dari Dewa Siwa itu sendiri.
Dewa Siwa Durga Sakti Dewi Mahakali
Pada jaman dahulu di Nusantara penjagaan keamanan dan pengendalian pemerintahan di wilayah kekuasaan berdasarkan pada kharisma dan kekuasaan Raja. Seperti di abad ke-12 Raja Jawa Singasari yaitu Kertanegara menganut Bhairawa Kalacakra untuk mengimbangi kekuatan Kaisar Mongol Khu Bhi Lai Khan yang menganut Bhairawa Heruka. aliran-aliran Sekte Bhairawa cenderung bersifat politik, untuk mendapatkan kharisma besar yang diperlukan dalam pengendalian pemerintahan dan menjaga keamanan wilayah kekuasaan kerajaan,seperti halnya pemimpin dari kalangan militer di masa sekarang, Karena itu raja-raja dan petinggi pemerintahan serta pemimpin masyarakat pada zaman dahulu banyak yang menganut aliran sekte ini. Di ceritakan bahwa patih Majapahit Adityawarman/Arya Damar turut serta dalam ekspansi Majapahit ke Bali (Bedahulu) pada tahun 1343 yang dipimpin oleh Mahapatih Gajah Mada. Diceritakan bahwa ia dan saudara-saudaranya membantu Mahapatih Gajah Mada memimpin pasukan Majapahit untuk menyerbu Kerajaan Bedahulu Pejeng, Gianyar Bali. Kerajaan Bedahulu adalah kerajaan Bali kuno yang berdiri sejak pertengahan abad ke-9 sampai abad ke-14 yang diperintah oleh raja-raja keturunan dinasti Sri Warmadewa. Ketika menyerang Bali, raja Bali Bedahulu Sri Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten yang menguasai saat itu adalah seorang Bhairawa penganut ajaran Durga Bhairawi.
Sakti Siwa Durga Kala Cakra
Untuk mengalahkan Raja Bali yang terkenal sakti itu Majapahit mengatur siasat agar Raja dan Mahapatih Bali harus dipisahkan kalau tidak Kerajaan Bali akan sulit untuk di taklukan dikarenakan Mahapatih Bali yaitu Kebo iwa adalah Mahapatih yang sangat kebal dari senjata tajam apapun dan dengan itu Mahapatih Gajah Mada mengatur siasat agar Mahapatih Kebo iwa di undang ke Jawa (Majapahit) dan juga memisahkan kedua kekuatan Utama Kerajaan Bali yaitu antara Raja Bedahulu dan Patihnya Kebo iwa, sehingga dengan hal itu Majapahit juga mengutus Patih Adityawarman yang menganut Bhairawa Kalacakra untuk mengimbangi kesaktian raja Bali Bedahulu. Pertempuran Dahsyat sesama penganut Bhairawa yang terjadi berakhir dengan kekalahan Raja Bedahulu dengan kekalahan itu maka Raja Bedahulu Sri Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten disebutkan pergi menyelamatkan diri dari pengejaran tentara Majapahit ke arah Bukit Gianyar Payangan dan Bukit Kintamani Bangli yang memang daerah itu sebagai pusat mayoritas masyarakat Bali Aga sehingga Kerajaan Bali Bedahulu dengan mudah berhasil ditaklukan oleh Kerajaan Majapahit dan Mahapatih Bedahulu Kebo iwa gugur di jawa dikarenakan siasat tipu daya Mahapatih Gajah Mada. Aliran sekte Bhairawa di Bali sudah berkembang pesat sejak abad ke-8 penyebaran ajaran ini bersamaan dengan kedatangan Rsi Markandeya di Bali dan juga beliau menurunkan berbagai Sekte-sekte di Bali seperti Pasupatha,Siwa Sidhanta,Bhairawa,KalaMukha,Sambhu dan linggayat. sehingga Pada abad ke-11 datanglah Mpu Kuturan yang beraliran Budha Mahayana sebagai penasihat utama (Purohita) Raja Bali Dwipa Sri Dharma Udayana Gunapriya Dharmapatni yang memperintahkan agar Mpu Kuturan mempersatukan seluruh sekte-sekte yang ada di Bali termasuk Sekte Bhairawa agar menjadi satu kesatuan yaitu Tri Murti Kahyangan tiga/kekuatan tuhan yang utama Brahma,Wisnu,Siwa dan Sekte Bhairawa beralih fungsi menjadi Pura Dalem yang memuja kesaktian khusus dari Dewa Siwa dan Durga.
Taru Beringin Setra Pura Dalem Agung Payangan
Misteri Keangkeran Pura Dalem Agung Payangan dikarenakan Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini sebagai tempat melinggihnya sekaligus Parahyangan ida Bhatari Dalem lingsir tidak dapat dipungkiri Kepingitan maupun Keangkeran dari Pura Dalem tertua di Payangan ini dan cerita masyarakat desa setempat terutama orang tua dahulu maupun masyarakat desa lain yang pernah melihat maupun merasakan keangkeran dari penjaga alam niskala Pura Dalem Agung Payangan menceritakan bahwa bentuk fisik dan tanda unen-unen maupun rencangan ida Bhatari Dalem lingsir apabila tedun/hadir pada saat hari dan waktu tertentu sehingga apabila ada manusia pada saat waktu dan jam yang memang tidak dibenarkan melakukan aktifitas ida duwe pasti menampakan wujudnya dan “ ida Duwe rencangan sangatlah banyak dan menyeramkan serta berwujud yang aneh-aneh” yaitu : Berwujud potongan kepala manusia berkuncung,Berwujud wanita cantik bermahkota,Berwujud Ular Naga,Berwujud Tokek raksasa,Berwujud Ular Putih yang sangat panjang,Berwujud kepiting raksasa,Berwujud Rangda penunggu kuburan,Berwujud tangan-tangan dan kaki yang sering berjalan mengitari wilayah kuburan,Berwujud Ular Kendang/Weling,Berwujud ayam putih berkaki tiga,Berwujud bola api besar berupa Banaspati Raja yang dapat menghanguskan apa saja yang dilaluinya dan masih banyak sekali unen-unen maupun rencangan ida Bhatari Dalem lingsir yang berjumlah ribuan banyaknya dan yang pasti mendengarnya saja membuat bulu kuduk merinding apa lagi merasakan ataupun melihat penampakan yang berupa aneh-aneh tersebut, dan dengan adanya berbagai keunikan yang ada di Pura Dalem Agung Payangan ini baik itu Sekala maupun Niskala membuktikan bahwa kekuasaan Tuhan tidak sebatas hanya alam semesta maupun Mahkluk Ciptaannya yang nyata tetapi di luar itu Tuhan menciptakan mahkluk di luar dimensi alam lain yaitu alam Niskala. Pura yang berkaitan dengan perjalanan suci Rsi Markandeya di Bumi Payangan yaitu : Pura Murwa Bumi (tengah) Pura Dalem Agung Payangan (timur) Pura AirJeruk / Er Jeruk Payangan (Barat) Pura Agung Payangan (Selatan) dan Pura Puseh Melinggih Payangan (Utara) Kahyangan inilah sebagai panca parahyangan Bhatara-Bhatari lingsir ring Payangan atau tertua di Payangan yang dikarenakan adanya kahyangan ini sebagai awal cikal bakal terbentuknya Parahyangan pertama di Bali. Pura Airjeruk/Erjeruk Payangan yang keberadaannya berkaitan dengan adanya kisah buah jeruk linglang yang hidup hanya di dunia Bhatara yang dapat menghidupkan (urip) mahkluk apapun yang telah Mati dan air dari buah jeruk sakti inilah diminum oleh Rsi Markandeya beserta pengikutnya dalam memulihkan kondisi tubuh setelah merabas Hutan Alas Angker Payangan yang banyak menelan korban jiwa dari pengikutnya Rsi Markandeya sehingga disebut Alas Angker/Hutan Angker dan juga kasiat dari air Jeruk linglang ini diyakini sangat luar biasa hebatnya dalam menyembuhkan berbagai penyakit,namun keberadaan pohon maupun jeruk linglang ini jauh berada di Alam niskala terkadang di hari tertentu terlihat namun juga terkadang tidak terlihat (Maya-Maya) dan hanya di Pura ini saja ada karena buah jeruk linglang ini kesayangan ida Bhatara yang melinggih di pura tersebut sehingga Rsi Markandeya memberi nama Parahyangan Air Jeruk. Pura Agung Payangan adalah Bale Agungnya pulau Bali yang pada jaman dahulu Bale panjangnya sangat amat panjang dan bale agung inilah sebagai tempat pesamuan Agung Rsi Markandeya beserta pengikutnya dalam melakukan kegiatan upacara keagamaan maupun penyebaran ajaran Sekte-sekte aliran kepercayaan di Bali sehingga Bale Agung ini saat itu sebagai yang terpanjang di bali yang panjangnya dari Payangan desa sampai Pura Murwa Bumi desa Pengaji Payangan yang diperkirakan mencapai 1,5 km dan terbukti jejak peninggalan dari sendi kaki dasar pondasi bangunan Bale Agung di tahun 1960an masih terlihat jelas tetapi saat ini sudah tidak terlihat lagi dikarenakan tertutup oleh semak-semak maupun lahan persawahan masyarakat di wilayah desa Karang Suwung Payangan yang artinya pekarangan yang sepi dikarenakan di bongkarnya kayu Bale Agung yang sebagai tempat Pesamuan Agung Rsi Markandeya dan juga sebagai tempat tinggal sementara dari pengikut Rsi Markandeya di bumi Parahyangan yang banyak berpindah tempat ke daerah lain di seluruh Pulau Bali. Pura Puseh Melinggih Payangan memiliki peninggalan benda-benda arkeologi berupa arca dewa-dewi, lingga yoni berbentuk semu,arca Ganesa,arca Bedogol dll. yang telah diteliti oleh para arkeologi dinas kepurbakalaan bahwa Pura Puseh ini ada di zaman awal sekte-sekte kepercayaan di wilayah Payangan pada abad ke-8 dan lebih tua di bandingkan dengan Pura Puseh lain di bali yang sebagai system kahyangan tiga kerajaan Bali kuno rumusan Mpu kuturan di abad ke-11 dan arca di pura puseh ini cenderung mendekati zaman peralihan Megalitic animisme ke zaman era Hindu Siwa di Bali.
Goa Pesiraman Bhatari lingsir Dalem Agung Payangan (Taman Magenda)
Dari tinjauan sejarah tidak banyak diketahui tentang peninggalan Rsi Markandeya secara pasti baik itu di wilayah Kecamatan Payangan maupun di desa Taro Tegalalang tetapi ada sebagian pura peninggalan lain Rsi Markandeya yang belum terungkap dikarenakan adanya politik kerajaan penguasa daerah pada saat itu serta adanya situs Pura kuno peninggalan Beliau yang ada dan Konon setelah berhasil mengembangkan ajaran Siwa di Bali,Rsi Markandeya kembali ke Gunung Raung di jawa timur untuk melakukan tapabrata hingga mencapai Moksa (manunggaling lan gusti) ditempat tersebut. Dari keberadaan Parahyangan/Kahyangan di Bali dapat di sadari bahwa begitu besar jasa Rsi,Mpu,maupun Dhang Guru dalam menyebarkan ajaran Hindu di Bali dan tanpa jasa beliau-beliau di Bali kita tidak akan pernah merasakan nikmatnya hasil karya Agung berupa tradisi ritual sakral yang berbalut seni budaya hingga sampai-sampai pulau kecil nan cantik ini di beri nama The Lord Island (Pulau Dewata) sebutan di mata Dunia internasional kepada pulau Bali oleh karena itu kita sebagai Orang Bali sepatutnya Bangga dan melestarikan Adat Agama maupun tradisi Budaya di Bali karena Bali adalah satu-satunya Warisan Nusantara maupun Dunia.
di kutip dari : http://wwwbumiparahyangan.blogspot.com/

Kamis, 31 Mei 2012

Download Software Video Converter Gratis

Download Software Video Converter Gratis WinFF merupakan software video converter gratis yang simpel namun cukup lengkap dengan dukungan terhadap proses konversi dari dan ke berbagai format file video maupun audio yang di dukung oleh engine ffmpeg, sebut saja beberapa di antaranya seperti format video/film mpeg, cd/dvd, iphone, 3gp aka ponsel, dan format audio/musik/lagu seperti mp3, aac, dan lainnya.
Software mutimedia yang bersifat open-source ini bisa digunakan untuk konversi dari format video ke format video lainnya, konversi video ke audio, dan juga konversi dari format audio tertentu ke format audio lainnya (audio ke audio). Sebagai contoh, kita bisa konversi video yang kita download dari Youtube untuk kita masukkan ke ponsel, atau konversi video ke mp3. WinFF mampu mengkonversi berbagai file sekaligus sehingga bisa mempercepat proses konversi tanpa perlu dilakukan satu-per-satu. Untuk pengguna yang sudah advanced, preset konversi juga bisa diubah sesuai pilihan untuk disesuaikan dengan keinginan pengguna, seperti pengaturan bitrate, frame size, frame rate, dll. Berikut adalah fitur WinFF. Easy to use interface. Fast (Winff does not hinder FFmpeg in anyway). High quality output. Converts multiple different files all to the same format at once. Convert video to audio. Convert between audio formats. No external codecs needed. Includes a variety of preset conversion settings for common formats and devices. Preset conversions can be created to encode to any format FFmpeg supports. Easy access to common conversion options such as bitrate, frame size, frame rate. Specify additional command line parameters for advanced users (options button). Easily change FFmpeg versions. Supports FFmpeg’s multi threading for dual core processors Multilingual, available in over 10 languages WinFF merupakan software konversi video untuk OS Windows dan juga OS Ubuntu/Linux. Silahkan langsung download dari situs resmi WinFF di sini. * Semoga berguna.

Rabu, 30 Mei 2012

Download Photoscape Terbaru

download photoscape terbaru photoscape adalah software editing foto yang gratis, baik di download maupun saat penggunaan. Ini adalah salah satu alternative yang bagus untuk menggantikan Adobe Photoshop yang harganya amat mahal per satu lisensi.Jadi bisa jadi pilihan tepat untuk industri menengah yang mempunyai masalah modal kembang kempis. Atau dapat menjadi software yang tepat bagi kamu untuk belajar edit foto.
Photoscape ini adalah software yang hanya berjalan di sistem operasi windows. Berjalan sangat baik di Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista/7. Tapi jika kamu masih memakai windows 98, sebaiknya download saja photoscape versi 3.4 Berikut link download untuk mengunduh Photoscape secara gratis dan mudah klik disini Ukuran dari photoscape ini adalah sekitar 17.53 mb, sangat kecil. Jadi anda mungkin tidak terlalu membutuhkan software semacam IDM untuk proses download. jangan lupa untuk menginstall kamu memerlukan minimum system requirements of photocape untuk bisa berjalan di komputermu. Berikut screeshot dari Photoscape